Hammer toe

Patient Information


GP Information

Background Information

  • Abnormal flexion of the PIPJ of any lesser toe with DIP extension due to a muscular imbalance.
  • May be rigid or flexible and is most commonly found in the second toe of elderly women.
  • Patients may complain of pain on wearing shoes and deformity.
  • Examination may reveal a positive push up test.

Investigation Guidelines

  • Investigations are not required for diagnosis, management, or referral.

Management Recommendations

Conservative measures include

  • Patient education.
  • Shoe wear advice – avoid totally flat, high, or tight shoes. Trainers are appropriate.
  • Silicone / foam toe sleeve.

Referral Indications;

  • Diagnostic uncertainty.
  • Chronic pain / disability not responding to conservative management.
  • Unable to wear normal shoes.
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